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He found that Kathy was suffering from a malady known as hypersensitivity pneumoni- tis—also known as farmer’s lung or cheese lung—and more recently iden- tiﬁed as a form of “sick building syndrome generic 20mg levitra professional fast delivery erectile dysfunction ka desi ilaj. It is also found in hay stored in barns and in the fermentation process at cheese factories cheap levitra professional 20 mg visa erectile dysfunction 29. For those who are sensitive to this type of mold, prolonged exposure to it can cause ﬁbrosis of (a buildup of tissue in) the lungs. Closely associated with sick building syndrome and other syndromes resulting from exposure to toxic mold is a controversial illness known as 16 Becoming Your Own Medical Detective “multiple chemical sensitivity. For an esti- mated 20–30 percent of the population (some thirty-seven million Ameri- cans), the symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity can range from mild headaches, dizziness, short-term memory loss, nosebleeds, irritability, itchy eyes, and scratchy throats to possible damage to the nervous and respiratory systems. In its most extreme form, sufferers are conﬁned to a plastic bubble world or one made up of only natural materials. A different set of illnesses of an environmental nature appear to be a by-product of disturbance of ecosystems. This would include, for example, occurrences of Lyme disease in suburbia. Given that Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, has been around a long time, why are peo- ple suddenly being diagnosed with it? In open woodlands, foxes and bob- cats keep a lid on the bacteria by hunting the mice that carry it, but when these predators vanish with our woodlands as developers clear lots for new subdivisions, the mice and their ticks proliferate unnaturally. Richard Oster- ﬁeld, an animal ecologist at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, found in a recent survey that infected ticks were seven times as prevalent on one- and two-acre lots as they were on the ﬁfteen-acre lots of yesteryear. The intriguing case study of a little boy who contracted Lyme disease while on a Boy Scout outing is described in Chapter 13. In Malaysia, where pig farmers started pushing back the forest to expand operations, displaced fruit bats began spreading a pathogen now known as the Nipah virus. The pigs developed a cough so loud it became known as the “one-mile cough. A full discussion of the medical consequences of disturbing the ecosys- tem is beyond the scope of this book. The point we are trying to make is how easy it is to have an undiagnosed disease that is quite real but remains a mystery until the root cause is found. Potential Dangers from Genetically Modiﬁed Foods Many scientists argue that we are creating a new kind of biological pollu- tion by altering the genetics in food. Genetic manipulation of everything The Diagnosis Dilemma 17 from corn to papayas may have unintended consequences, causing new drug-resistant diseases to emerge. While biotechnology is likely to change the world for the better in ways we can only imagine, it’s still in its infancy. Fears that genetically modiﬁed (GM) foods might promote drug-resistant “superbugs” have been fueled by some research ﬁndings. Dutch scientists recently discovered it might be pos- sible for genes to jump from GM food into bacteria in the gut of farm ani- mals. If the transferred genes are the antibiotic-resistant ones used in some of the GM crops fed to livestock, then there is a danger that antibiotic- resistant bacteria could spread from animals to humans. But many people, includ- ing some scientists, are concerned that ingesting them may lead to changes in human cells and subsequent disease. Jane Rissler of the Union of Con- cerned Scientists says, “We know very little about the long-term impacts of genetically engineered food, so as a general matter, they should be subject to more scrutiny. Ravi Durvasula, an infectious disease scientist at Yale University, calls the possibility of laboratories unleashing potentially deadly disease the “Jurassic Park syndrome”—an assessment that he says “may be rooted in real concern. But they are not quite there, even though genetic links have been found to some diseases such as dyslexia and certain types of high blood pressure. Likewise, physicians and their patients who suffer from little-understood conditions such as ﬁbro- myalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and certain other inﬂammatory disor- ders have long suspected a genetic link to such conditions. Only recently has genetic research uncovered a common gene that doesn’t allow certain patients to recover from inﬂammatory conditions as quickly or as well as 18 Becoming Your Own Medical Detective those who don’t have the gene. Scientists are now working on a drug to address the gene defect rather than the symptoms of the diseases. The Human Genome Project, a consortium of scientists from the United States, Britain, Japan, France, Germany, and China, has established the complete human genome sequence, but much research still lies ahead.
Overdrilling K-Wire Problem When the drill bit fails to progress purchase levitra professional 20mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction protocol list, it may be that the bit is drilling into the wire (Fig proven levitra professional 20 mg erectile dysfunction by age statistics. To determine if this is the problem, pull the drill back, remove the K-wire, and insert a new one. Intraoperative Complications 169 Solution The solution to the problem is to recognize it early and avoid completely drilling through the wire. If the wire is cut off in the middle of the tunnel, it is hard to retrieve. Prevention To prevent drilling the wire, watch the drill and piston over the wire to make sure that it is following the path of the wire. Piston Drilling to Follow the K-Wire: Lack of Visualization—The “Red Out” Problem Figure 9. The arthroscopic stack of equipment that is necessary to perform arthroscopic surgery, including the ﬂuid pump. Solution The remedy for the lack of visualization is the following: • Increase the ﬂow of the pump (Fig 9. Loss of Fixation: Bone Plug Cut Off the Graft Problem The screw may cut the tendon off the bone plug if the screw does not follow the direction of the tunnel (Fig. Put the tibial bone plug in femoral tunnel and ﬁx this with an interference screw. On the other end, use a Krackow suture in the cut tendon end and tie over a button on the tibia (Fig. The sutures are placed in the tendon end of the graft and tied over a button or post. Prevention To prevent the screw from damaging the graft, visualize the angle of the screw during insertion. The screw should be parallel to the graft and convergent in the femoral tunnel (Fig. It also helps to make a low anteromedial portal to insert the screw straight up the tunnel. The insertion of the BioScrew into the femoral tunnel, parallel to the graft. Loose Fixation of Interference Screws Problem If the screw is not put parallel to the tunnel, it may result in posterior penetration of the femoral tunnel. The appropriate size of screw, one that gives good purchase on the graft, must be used. Solution Use a two-pin passer to place the femoral screw in the femoral tunnel (Fig. If the guide wire is in the tunnel, the screw should follow the guide wire. Intraoperative Complications 173 Prevention In soft tissue graft ﬁxation, use a screw that is the same size in the femoral tunnel and one size larger in the tibial tunnel. With the patel- lar tendon graft, measure the space between the bone plug and the sizing cylinder. Graft Passage Problem If the graft is too tight in the tunnel, the leader sutures will break. Solution The solution is to remove the graft and dilate the tunnels up 1mm. Prevention The prevention of a difﬁcult graft passage is to make the patella bone plug 9mm so that it passes in a 10-mm tunnel. Measure the graft size after the suturing to make sure that it will pass easily. Graft Tunnel Mismatch Problem The problem is that the bone plug sticks out of the tibia. It is impossi- ble to use an interference ﬁt screw in the tibial tunnel (Fig. Solution The best solution is to trough the tibia and staple the tibial bone plug into the groove.
However discount 20mg levitra professional with mastercard sublingual erectile dysfunction pills, Guy’s splints and band- 1882–1957 ages were so cumbersome that there is little evi- dence in surgical literature of his system being Dr discount levitra professional 20mg without prescription impotence. Bunnell was born in San Francisco in 1882, used until Gurdon Buck devised his workable the son of James Sterling Bunnell and Catherine apparatus 400 years later. The beginning of his scientiﬁc Gurdon Buck was one of the most proliﬁc and endeavors came early. At the age of 6 years, he imaginative surgeons of the New York school of was starting to probe into the mysteries of animal the mid-nineteenth century and his important con- life and this intense interest led him deeper into tributions covered many ﬁelds. His other contri- the ﬁeld of anatomy and the natural sciences as butions, as important as they were in his time, he grew into manhood. His accomplishments in have become stepping stones to further advance, this ﬁeld alone were outstanding. He obtained his academic degree in 1904 and his also was known for his charitable activities. For a time thereafter, he Two of his sons followed him into the medical was associated with the University but later profession. Early in his medical career he recognized the Reference undeveloped state of extremity surgery and was soon deeply engaged in extremity surgical prob- 1. Buck G (1845) The knee-joint ankylosed at a right lems in the laboratory, where he carried out exten- angle—restored nearly to a straight position after sive experimental work on tendon and nerve excision of a wedge-shaped portion of bone, con- sutures and grafts and on skeletal structures and sisting of the patella, condyles, and articular surface joints. Am J Med Sci 10:277–284 used later in restoring function to vast numbers of human crippled extremities. Bunnell served as a medical ofﬁcer in the United States Army from May 1917 to March 1919, holding the rank of Captain. During this time, he developed a keen interest in aviation, and, on his return to San Francisco, he piloted his own plane, 47 Who’s Who in Orthopedics using this means of transportation to travel to Shortly after the outbreak of World War II, Dr. Kirk, then National Aeronautical Society of the West, and in Surgeon General of the United States Army. As further evidence of his avi- period, he organized and established nine hand ation interests, he published in 1930 a most inter- centers in army general hospitals throughout the esting treatise entitled Aeronautics of Bird Flight. His untiring efforts resulted in great During his military service, his professional advances in the handling of wartime hand injuries contacts with the wounded further stimulated his and their later reconstruction. He visited each interest in the reconstructive aspect of surgery, hand center periodically, holding clinics, per- and many of the challenging problems at this time forming surgery, and training innumerable were to be solved later by his own efforts. For his On his return home he engaged in a general sur- outstanding service to the army he received the gical practice. As examples of his diverse ment of great interest in the ﬁeld of hand surgery, interests and attainments he published on such particularly among the younger men in the topics as cleft-palate repair, arterial suture, a pos- service, and culminated in the organization of the itive pressure apparatus to be used during thora- American Society for Surgery of the Hand in cotomy, and a guide for the Smith–Petersen nail. Bunnell served as the Society’s ﬁrst His ﬁrst publication on the upper extremity president. Up to the time of his death, he con- came in 1918 and was entitled Repair of Tendons tinued as its guiding force and as a source of in the Fingers and Description of Two New inspiration to its members. Following this and at intervals instrumental in encouraging the formation of during his lifetime, he produced over 50 papers hand clubs or societies in Scandinavia, England, covering many aspects of reconstructive and South America, and Japan. These original contributions After the war, and with some misgivings, he encompassed such subjects as atraumatic tech- gave up his general surgical practice to devote his nique, physiological reconstruction of the thumb full time to reconstructive surgery. Bunnell appeared repair of extremity nerves and the facial nerve, quiet, almost retiring in nature. To his closer active splinting, intrinsic-muscle contracture of acquaintances, however, he was dynamic and the hand, tendon transfers for the upper extrem- untiring. He was blessed with great physical ity, plastic aspects of reconstruction, surgery of stamina, which served him well, both in his pro- the rheumatic hand, and many others. His modesty and lack of fear were mented the principles of reconstructive surgery among his dominant characteristics. He displayed that are applicable to all parts of the body, great warmth of personality and to his immediate although the main emphasis was directed toward contemporaries he was affectionately known as the upper extremity and hand. He was a Surgery of the Hand rapidly achieved world- master of comparative and human anatomy, sub- wide distribution and was translated for publica- jects that to him were of living and vital interest.
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