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Astra's Guide to Lunar Exploration

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Introduction

On July 20, 1969, NASA astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. left the safety of their lunar module named, "Eagle" and made the first human steps onto the surface of Earth’s satellite. Michael Collins remained in orbit in the command module spacecraft named, "Columbia." The first successful human flight and landing on the Moon is a moment that lives on in history. That moment over 50 years ago will endure through the ages as one of the greatest achievements of humankind. Today it is obvious that journey has never ended. Find out more about the Apollo lunar mission below or continue reading to find out how the human race has continued on this journey.

logo of the ISECG

International Space Exploration Coordination Group(ISECG)

The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) is an organization space agencies established to advance human space exploration by coordinating world-wide efforts in space exploration. Current members include:

Australia - Brazil - Canada - China - European Space Agency - France - India - Italy - Japan - Luxembourg - Norway - Poland - Republic of Korea - Romania - Russia - Switzerland - Thailand - Ukraine - United Arab Emirates - United Kingdom - United States - Vietnam

This international organization is moving forward on plans to explore the Moon and begin utilization of lunar resources. Efforts in this area are intended to bring human space exploration forward and many believe that Mars is the first destination beyond the Earth-Moon system.

Active Lunar Explorers

This section covers missions that are actively working on the task of exploration of the Moon. Completed missions, including the Chang'e 5 can be found in that section.

Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter (LRO) - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

On June 18, 2009, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and the Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) missions to the moon were launched from Cape Kennedy. LRO reached lunar orbit and its exploration mission began on September 15, 2009. The orbiter's mission was slated to end after a year, but it is still operating today.

LRO and NASA capture the Earth over the lunar surface

Instruments carried by LRO include Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) that measures the radiation from the Sun and cosmic sources; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) to measure lunar surface temperatures for future surface operations and exploration; Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) a spectrometer to map the lunar surface in the far ultraviolet region; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) to detect hydrogen in permanently shadowed craters near the lunar poles that may indicate the presence of water ice; the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument studies lunar topography to make a 3d model of the lunar surface to identify the best locations for safe landing and surface exploration; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) includes 2 narrow-angle cameras that make high-resolution, black-and-white images resolving details to 1 meter and a third wide-angle camera that takes color and ultraviolet images of the lunar surface; lastly Mini-RF uses radar to study permanently shadowed areas on the moon.

Astra's Lunar Exploration page features the image that was attained by the LRO spacecraft while it was studying the wispy lunar exosphere. The image was created using the LROC cameras, the narrow-angle cameras captured the lunar surface while the wide-angle camera captured a full-color image of my favorite planet. This image was featured on a NASA press release on December 18, 2015 that gives more details of how the image was created.

Chang'e 4 - CSNA

Launched on December 7, 2018, Chang'e-4's lander, Jade Rabbit-2 and rover, Yutu-2 is still operating on the Moon. The solar-powered probe goes dormant (~2 weeks) during the lunar night.

The lander's equipment includes cameras, a low frequency spectrometer, and a Lunar Micro Ecosystem - - a sealed biosphere cylinder with seeds and insect eggs to find out if plants and insects could hatch and grow together. Within a few hours after landing on January 3, 2019, the biosphere's temperature was adjusted to 24°C and the seeds were watered. Unfortunately, a large drop in temperature stopped the experiment after 9 days instead of the planned 100 days, but valuable information was obtained. Lunar rover's equipment includes a panoramic camera, on a mast that can rotate 360°, Lunar penetrating radar and a Visible and Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer.

Landing on the moon on January 3, 2019 the rover has far exceeded its 3-month mission and has the record for operating days on the moon. Yutu-2 is currently exploring Von Kármán crater in the Aitken Basin near the Moon's south pole.

Read about the higly successful Chang'e 5 mission

Lunar-based ultraviolet telescope (LUT) - CNSA

Chandrayaan 2 - Indian Space Research Organisation

The second lunar mission of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was launched on July 22, 2019 from Sriharikota. It reached the Moon and settled into a polar orbit to release the Vikram lander on September 02, 2019. Although the lander was released, communications were lost when it was 2.1 km above the surface. The orbiter is still functioning and studying the moon’s evolution and mapping minerals and water in the polar regions. The orbiter carries 8 instruments including cameras, spectrometers, radar and a solar x-ray monitor. It is believed that the mission will continue well beyond its 1 year expected lifetime. The high resolution camera is returning data on the polar surface that will help build topographic maps to assist in determining the best places for landing humans on the lunar surface.

ARTEMIS-P1 and ARTEMIS-P2

Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) satellites were originally called THEMIS-B and THEMIS-C and were launched as part of a fleet of 5 spacecraft used to study the Earth's magnetic field. For 2 years the fleet measured radiation and particles in the near Earth environment. Because the fleet could not longer maintain the orbit they needed to work together, in 2010 these two satellites were moved into lunar orbit. On July 17, 2011 they settled into a "kidney-shaped" orbit around the Moon. Just as these probe were used to study the environment around Earth, the newly renamed mission uses the instruments on the spacecraft to learn how the Moon interacts with space around it. It is expected that this "Artemis" mission will remain operating in lunar orbit for a long time to come. This mission has been renamed THEMIS-ARTEMIS to avoid confusion.

Lunar Exploration Missions Under Development

These lunar missions are being developed around the world. Most of the information on this lunar exploration web page provides a limited overview. Astra encourages further investigation through the multitude of sources available on the internet. The focus is on programs that seem to be the most likely to be completed and the list will obviously change.

Artemis program logo

Artemis - to the Moon and Back . . to stay

The Artemis program is a NASA human spaceflight program to launch "the first woman and the next man" to the Moon. The goal is to make the next visit to the Moon in 2024 using a commercially-developed lander. The spacecraft Orion will be launched on the US Space Launch System (SLS) rocket.

- - Read Astra's Guide to Artemis

Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER)

VIPER is a mobile robot that will be sent to the south pole of the Moon to seek the location of water ice that can be used to support human exploration on the Moon. Development of VIPER continues under NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program that NASA is sponsoring to partner with US commercial companies to deliver payloads to the surface of the Moon. VIPER is planned for launch to the lunar surface in late 2023.

Viper is 8 feet (2.5 m) tall and 5 feet (1.5 m) in length and width. It is being built to crawl around inside craters. The rover must be able to move over different types of soil and up and down inclines. Each of the rover's wheels have active suspension and independent steering so it can move sideways and diagonally or spin in a circle. VIPER will travel at ~0.5 mph over the lunar surface. VIPER is the first NASA rover with headlights so it can explore inside dark craters. Its specially designed cameras will work in light and dark conditions.

VIPER will be delivered to the lunar surface on Astrobotic’s Griffin lunar lander. Griffin is capable of delivering up to 500kg of mass to the lunar surface. Griffin's propulsion system uses 7 main engines to perform all maneuvers including trans-lunar injection, trajectory correction, lunar orbit insertion, and powered descent.

Lunar Gateway

Lunar Gateway is the intention to build a space station in a special lunar orbit (near rectilinear) that has international support. In 2021 the space development company, Rocket Lab will launch a CubeSat into lunar orbit for NASA. Using its Electron rocket and Photon Lunar spacecraft the Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System Technology Operations and Navigation Experiment (CAPSTONE) CubeSat will launch to this unique lunar orbit. From the Moon's perspective this orbit moves the satellite in a polar orbit that is closer to the northern pole and farther from the southern pole. The orbit is using the L1 center of mass between Earth and the Moon. This near-rectilinear halo orbit may be called "NRHO".

Although it is uncertain the role the Lunar Gateway will have for NASA's Artemis-3 mission, NASA's Gateway site states:

In the future, our current ISS partners will provide important contributions to Gateway, comprising advanced external robotics, additional habitation and possibly other enhancements. Canada announced in February 2019 its intention to participate in the Gateway and contribute advanced external robotics. In June 2020, the Canadian Space Agency announced its intention to award a contract to MDA to build the Canadarm3 for Artemis deep space missions. In October 2019, Japan announced plans to join the United States on the Gateway with contributions of habitation components and logistics resupply. In November 2019, the European Space Agency (ESA) received authorization and funding to support its planned contributions to the Gateway including habitation and refueling. In October 2020, ESA signed an agreement with NASA to contribute habitation and refueling modules and enhanced lunar communications to the Gateway. ESA also provides two additional European Service Modules (ESMs) for NASA’s Orion spacecraft. Russia has also expressed interest in cooperating on the Gateway.

Go to NASA's Gateway site

NASA's Commercial Lunar Development Projects

In 2014, NASA announced the Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (CATALYST) initiative to form commercial partnerships for lunar exploration to encourage the development of robotic lunar landers to deliver payloads to the lunar surface. NASA selected Astrobotic Technology, Masten Space Systems Inc., and Moon Express Inc. to continue the development of their landers.

As of November 2020, NASA selected surface task order awards and payload assignments for the first scheduled Lunar missions.

Lunar landers will be equipped with Laser Retro-Reflector Array (LRA) containing eight 1.25 cm reflectors. The mirror reflects laser light from other spacecraft to determine the lander’s position. For precision navigation they will all carry Navigation Doppler LIDAR (NDL).

Astrobotic Technology is developing the Peregrine Lunar Lander that will deliver 14 payloads to the Moon in 2021. The cargo lander will be launched by United Launch Alliance’s (ULA) Vulcan Centaur rocket.

- - Read more about Astrobotic Technology on Astra's Commercial Space Exploration page

On its first mission, Peregrin will carry several instruments to the lunar surface: various spectrometers to detect the presence of water and other rare elements and to search for hydrogen in the lunar regolith; mass spectrometers will characterize volatiles in the lunar exosphere during descent and landing, look at low-molecular weight volatiles, test spacecraft outgassing and how it interacts with the local lunar surface and exosphere; a near-Infrared spectrometer will test for volatiles near spacecraft and interaction with the local lunar surface and exosphere, measure radiation levels present at the lunar surface; a photovoltaic investigation will study the feasibility of using advanced solar arrays for power on future missions to the lunar surface; and a magnetometer will measure local magnetic fields near the lunar surface. This first mission will also test to see how landing disturbs and contaminates samples at the local site.

Astrobotic also won NASA’s Lunar Surface and Instrumentation and Technology Payload (LSITP) program to develop a lunar rover. Astrobotic's MoonRanger could fly to the Moon as early as 2021 or 2022. The lander will provide power, communications, and data transfer for scientific investigations that it carries or deploys.

- - Read more about the Peregrine Lander on Astra's Artemis page

Intuitive Machines (IM) is developing the Nova-C Lunar Lander. Their landers will use SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket to launched their missions. The Nova-C Lunar Lander can deliver 100 kg to the surface of the moon. It makes a soft landing and it can land anywhere on the moon.

IM-1 mission

Intuitive Machines IM-1 mission is scheduled to launch October 2021. Intuitive Machines has negotiated with SpaceX to launch the lander on a Falcon 9 rocket. It will land in Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms) in Vallis Schröteri. This is a collapsed lava tunnel on the moon.

Lunar Node 1 Navigation Demonstrator (LN-1) a CubeSat-sized experiment that will demonstrate autonomous navigation to aid future missions. Developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

Stereo Cameras for Lunar Plume-Surface Studies (SCALPSS) will capture video and still image of the Nova C's plume while landing on the lunar surface until the engine shuts off. Developed at NASA Langley Research Center, it will aid future lunar and Mars vehicle designs.

Low-frequency Radio Observations for the Near Side Lunar Surface (ROLSES): ROLSES will use a low-frequency radio receiver to take measurements to learn how radio antennas are affected on the lunar surface The ROLSES measurements will confirm how well a lunar surface-based radio observatory would be able to observe and image solar radio bursts. Developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

IM-2 Polar Mission

IM-2 will launch in early 2022.

- - Read more about the Intuitive Machines on Astra's Commercial Space Exploration page

Masten Space Systems is developing the XL-1 lunar lander to deliver payloads to the southern pole of the Moon in 2022. Masten also won NASA's "Tipping Point" award to develop Metal Oxidation Warming System (MOWS), a chemical heating solution to help spacecraft survive in sunlight-deprived lunar environments. Marsden also continues to develop its reusable rocket, Xogdor.

XL-1 Lander Delivering Payloads to the Lunar Surface

NASA selected science and technology payloads for the XL-1 Masten Lander to deliver to the lunar surface. The investigations and demonstrations will help the agency to land humans on the Moon. The XL-1 should be able to operate for 12 days on the surface.

Projects for lunar delivery services and advance capabilities include:

Go to Astra's Commercial Space Developers

Luna 25 - Luna Glob lander

Luna 25 continues the Russian lunar exploration that began under the Soviet Union. For Luna 25, Roscosmos partners with the European Space Agency (ESA) to accomplish a lunar lander mission. For this mission, the Luna 25 lander will land on the Moon using ESA's Pilot-D (Precise and Intelligent Landing using Onboard Technologies) camera. and to extract and analyze samples of the lunar terrain (PROSPECT). Luna 25 lander will also be equipped with a robotic arm.

Luna 26 - Luna-Resurs orbiter

Luna 26 is a lunar orbiter mission that will make UHF radio link tests and gain experience in polar orbital operations. It will study Luna-27 landing site candidates and measure space plasma in the lunar vicinity. Future missions are being planned.

Upcoming Missions

Smart Lander for Investigating the Moon (SLIM)

JAXA's lunar lander mission will develop the landing technology needed for future lunar exploration. It is a small scale mission but will prove its worth by landing exactly where it is intended to land. It still being developed and is currently scheduled for launch in 2022.

Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System Technology Operations and Navigation Experiment (CAPSTONE)

CAPSTONE is a Moon-orbiting mission that is part of NASA’s Artemis program, CAPSTONE will help reduce risk for future spacecraft by validating innovative navigation technologies and verifying the dynamics of this halo-shaped orbit. CAPSTONE is a NASA Cube-Sat that will be launched by Rocket Labs on their Electron rocket in 2021.

The orbit, formally known as a near rectilinear halo orbit (NRHO). The orbit will bring CAPSTONE within 1,000 miles of one lunar pole on its near pass and 43,500 miles from the other pole where it will peak every seven days. This orbit requires less propulsion capability for spacecraft flying to and from the Moon’s surface than other circular orbits. Its location at a precise balance point in the gravities of Earth and the Moon, offers stability for long-term missions like Gateway and requires minimal energy to maintain. CAPSTONE’s orbit also establishes a location that is an ideal staging area for missions to the Moon and beyond.

CAPSTONE will travel for three months before reaching its target orbit and will stay in this lunar orbit at least 6 months to allow NASA to understand the characteristics of the orbit. It will help define the power and propulsion requirements to maintain this NRHO orbit. It will also demonstrate the reliability of innovative spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation solutions as well as communication capabilities with Earth. The NRHO provides the advantage of an unobstructed view of Earth in addition to coverage of the lunar South Pole.

Completed Missions

These mission are in order by end of mission, incomplete missions may be listed but failed missions will be omitted

Chang'e 5 - China National Space Administration

Chang'e 5 spacecraft rendering by CSNA

Chang'e 5 is a Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) lunar sample return mission that launched on November 23, 2020 from Wenchang Space Launch Center. Chang’e 5 launched on a Long March 5 rocket that sent the spacecraft into a trajectory that will get it to the Moon.

The Chang’e 5 spacecraft had 4 modules. The Service Module (SM) systems remained in lunar orbit during surface operations. It was equipped with solar arrays, communication systems, and carried the propulsion system and attitude control thrusters. The propulsion system on the Service Module performed trajectory correction maneuvers, the lunar orbit insertion burn, orbital maintenance and then brought the spacecraft back to Earth. The Lander and the Ascent Vehicle (AV) were released in lunar orbit on November 30. They traveled together to the lunar surface. The Return Vehicle (RV) was the special vessel that carried samples back to Earth. It had its own thruster system to control its orientation, onboard measurement systems, and communication beacons to announce its location after landing.

The lander set down in the Mons Rumker region of Oceanus Procellarum on December 1, 2020. It arrived at the beginning of a lunar day (lasting 2 Earth weeks) to collect a 2-kg sample of the lunar regolith. The mission had to be finished quickly because the sensitive equipment would not survive intact during the 14-day lunar "night". Oceanus Procellarum or Ocean of Storms was created by lunar volcanic forces. This part of the Moon is thought to be realitively young, about 1.2 billion years old. The lander used a mechanical scoop and a drill to collect samples. It was hoped that samples could be obtained 2 meters or 6 feet below the surface. Chang’e 5 had a robotic arm to gather loose regolith and small rocks and transfer them to the Ascent vehicle. When the samples had been secured, the AV launched from the lunar surface to dock with Chang'e 5 spacecraft. The remainder of the landing system ceased operations after the launch of the lunar payload.

A rendezvous in lunar orbit was another milestone on this impressive mission. The samples were transferred to the Return Vehicle in lunar orbit. The SM and Return Vehicle returned to Earth on December 16, 2020. The SM released the return vehicle and samples. To slow down from the great speed that was required to bring the vessel back, an atmospheric braking manuever called "skip reentry" helped to slow down the return capsule. It made a hard landing (but not fatal) in the Ulanqab region of Mongolia, China, and was recovered quickly. The entire mission took 23 days to complete and recovered 2 kilograms or 4.4 pounds of lunar samples.

Beresheet

SpaceIL, a non-profit organization with help from Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) built the Beresheet spacecraft intended to land on the Moon. Beresheet means "beginning". On April 4, 2019 "Beresheet" completed the Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver, making Israel the 7th country to reach the moon. Unfortunately, the mission's lander did not land successfully on the surface. It carried a time capsule, some experiments, and scientific instruments.

Chang'e 3

Launched on December 1, 2013, Chang'e 3 soft landed on the lunar surface on December 15. It delivered a lander to the lunar surface named "Yutu" or "Jade Rabbit". This rover traveled 114 meters (374 feet) on the lunar surface and was unable to move across the surface after January 2014. It continued to transmit data from its stationary position and was last heard from in March 2015.

Lunar-based ultraviolet telescope (LUT)

Chang'e 3 lander also carried a 150 mm (~6 in) Ritchey–Chrétien telescope that can be used to observe stars and galaxies in the near-UV band (245–340 nm), and can detect objects down to 13mag. The Moon's thin exosphere and slow rotation allows for uninterrupted observations of a target. Its major constraint is that it must be used when the Sun is over the horizon so special filters are needed. This telescope is still in operation on the lunar surface.

Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

LADEE was the first lunar mission launched from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility on Sept. 7, 2013. This robotic mission orbited the moon to study the structure and composition of the thin lunar atmosphere (called exosphere), and determine if dust is lofted off the surface. While in orbit, LADEE studied the landing of China’s Chang’e 3 on December 2013 recording what substances (i.e., water, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and hydrogen) might be present due to the Chang'e 3 landing. The LRO probe took an image of LADEE in January 2014 and recorded the impact of LADEE when the mission ended with a controlled impact on January 15, 2015.

Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL)

GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B were launched on September 10, 2011 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The spacecraft went into polar orbits of the Moon. They were used for gravity mapping by taking measurements between the 2 vehicles. The mission ended by controlled lunar impacts on December 17, 2012. The next close pass of the Earth for the probe is expected in 2029.

Chang'e - 2

Chang'e-2 launched to the moon October 1, 2010. This mission produced better maps of the lunar surface. The spacecraft was to help identify locations for a lander for China. Chang'e-2 left lunar orbit and flew to the L2 Lagrange point, where the gravitational pull of the Earth and Sun is equal. Here they tested deep-space communications and tracking for future missions. In April 2012, the spacecraft moved off to flyby the asteroid 4179 Toutatis in January 2013.

Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)

LCROSS launched with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft on June 18 2009. LCROSS searched for water ice on the Moon's surface by directing the 2000-kg Centaur upper stage that launched it from Earth to impact on the Moon at Cabeus crater. The impact was observed by the LRO satellite. The spacecraft that dropped the spent rocket for impact was called, the "Sheparding Spacecraft". The impact on October 9, 2009 was located at 84-deg. S and 311-deg E on the lunar surface. The impact velocity was ~2.5 km/sec at an angle of ~75 degrees. The missions found evidence that the lunar soil in shadowy craters is rich in useful materials. The moon is chemically active and has a water cycle. LCROSS was built from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) instruments to keep the costs low.

Chandrayaan 1

Chandrayaan 1 was an Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) launched on October 22, 2008 from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, India. The probe studied lunar mineralogy, found evidence of water molecules locked in mineral grains, and mapped the Apollo landing sites. The spacecraft launched the Moon Impact Probe (MIP) to the lunar surface on November 14, 2008 at the south pole near the Shackleton crater. Communication from Chandrayaan 1 ended abruptly on August 28, 2009 about 10 months into its 2-year mission.

Chang'e - 1

The Chang'e-1 probe was launched on Oct. 24, 2007 on a Long March rocket. The mission was named after the Chinese Moon goddess, Chang'e. The orbiter mapped features on the moon using microwave imaging, identified elements on the lunar surface, and tested the soil for Helium-3. It also studied solar wind and radiation at the Moon. The probe made a controlled impact on the lunar surface on March 1, 2009.

SELenological and ENgineering Explorer (SELENE)

Also called Kaguya, SELENE was a Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) lunar orbiter mission. SELENE consisted of 3 satellites: the orbiter, a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio satellite, and a relay satellite to receive signals from the orbiter when on the far side of the Moon. Kaguya launched on September 14, 2007 from Tanegashima Space Center. Kaguya's mission ended with a controlled impact on the Moon on June 10, 2009

Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART-1)

The SMART-1 spacecraft launched on September 27, 2003 from Kourou, French Guiana by the European Space Agency (ESA.) It was a lunar orbiter and a test for a solar-powered ion drive. Its primary mission was to study the Moon to answer questions about the origin of the Earth-Moon system. SMART-1 performed a controlled crash to the lunar surface on September 3, 2006.

Lunar Prospector

Lunar Prospector launched on January 6, 1998 from Kennedy Space Center. The probe operated in low polar orbit, mapped the surface and looked for ice depositions. On July 31, 1999, Lunar Prospector made a controlled impact on the Moon near the south pole.

Clementine Project

Clementine was launched on January 25, 1994 from Vandenberg Air Force Base. After reaching orbit, lunar mapping took place for ~3 months. The mission ended when a computer malfunction used up all of its fuel.

Hiten (Celestial Maiden)

Launched by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) on January 24, 1990, this probe was also known as Muses-A. At first the probe was off course and its main science experiment probe, Hagoromo, had failed. The Hiten spacecraft was placed in lunar orbit successfully thanks to an orbital trajectory solution submitted to the Japanese space agency by scientists at the Jet Propulsion laboratory. After 3 years, 2 months into the mission the orbiter was deliberately crashed on the lunar surface.

Successful USSR Lunar Probes

Luna 3 was launched on October 4, 1959, performed a flyby of the Moon and successfully returned images of the moon's far side.

Luna 9 launched on 31 January 1966, the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the Moon. It transmitted photographic data from the Moon's surface.

Luna 16 was launched on September 12, 1970 and made a successful landing on the Moon in the Sea of Fertility (Mare Foecunditatis.) The first robotic lander drilled to a depth of 35-cm before encountering hard rock. The lunar regolith was transferred to a soil sample container. The Luna 16 re-entry capsule successfully lifted off from the Moon with 101 grams of material. It returned to Earth and dropped the sample safely using parachutes.

Lunokhod 1

Luna 17 soft landed on the Moon on November 17, 1970 in the Sea of Rains. The spacecraft deployed the first lunar rover Lunokhod 1 that operated until October 4, 1971 (20th anniversary of Sputnik!) exceeding its expected lifetime. Lunokhod had traveled 10,540 m and returned 20,000 images and conducted more than 500 lunar soil tests.

Luna 19 was a Soviet Moon orbital mission launched on September 28, 1971. On November 1, 1972 communications were lost after the craft completed 4000 orbits.

Luna 20 was a Soviet Moon orbiting mission launched on 28 February 1971. It soft landed on the Moon near near the Sea of Fertility (Mare Foecunditatis.) Lunar samples (30 grams) were collected launched from the lunar surface on February 22, 1972 and were returned to Earth.

Luna 22 was a lunar orbiter mission launched May 5, 1974. The spacecraft was identical to the less successful Luna 19 reaching its intended orbit. It had imaging cameras and studied the Moon's magnetic field, gravitational field, micrometeorites, and cosmic rays.

Lunokhod 2

Luna 21 landed at LeMonnier crater on January 15, 1973 carrying the second lunar rover. Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4 months, traveled 37 km and returned over 80,000 images.

Luna 21 was launched on January 8, 1973 and made a successful landing on January 12, 1793 on the Moon in LeMonnier Crater. The second Lunokhod robotic lander operated for about 4 months, covered 37 km of the lunar surface including hilly areas and rilles, and sent back 86 images and over 80,000 TV pictures. It traveled the lunar surface for 4 months.

Zond Program was highly successful. There were 8 Zond missions in total with 7 successful results. More details will be added in the future at Astras.

The first lunar probes

Luna 1 was launched on January 2, 1959 by the Soviet Union and was the first spacecraft to reach the Moon. An early space probe, it discovered that the Moon has no magnetic field and detected a strong flow of ionized plasma from the Sun that moves through the solar system. This is known today as the solar wind.

Pioneer 4 was launched on March 3, 1959 passed within 60,000km of the Moon's surface , the first US probe to escape from the Earth's gravity.

Moon Missions - NASA website covering the history of Lunar Missions

A mission patch for NASA Apollo missions

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